0-3 Months

  • Makes non-specific, non-reflexive movements
  • Moves arms and legs reflectively
  • Begins to lift head up briefly while on stomach
  • Begins to move arms smoothly in a circle
  • Swipes at objects
  • opens and closes hand

4-6 Months

  • Holds head up with minimum bobbing while supported
  • Can swallow voluntarily
  • Grasps small objects to put in hand
  • kicks more forcefully
  • raises head and chest on arms while on stomach
  • brings objects to mouth
  • rolls from stomach to back
  • can be easily pulled to stand
  • begins to turn head freely
  • begins to sit straight when slightly suported or in a chair
  • balances well by end of 6 months
  • reaches with one arm
  • can turn and twist in all directions

7-9 Months

  • Bangs objects together
  • begins to gain control of chewing and jaw; eats strained solids
  • pushes up on knees
  • pulls up to stand, but needs help to sit down
  • manipulates objects to explore
  • crawls
  • drops and throws objects

10-22 Months

  • holds and drinks from a cup
  • sits from a standing position
  • stands unsupported momentarily; later stands alone
  • climbs up and down stairs
  • feeds self with a spoon
  • pushes to stand from a squat
  • uses spoon, cup, and crayons and releases willfully
  • takes first step with support

15-18 months

  • walks a few steps backwards and sideways
  • dumps toys in a container
  • takes off socks and shoes
  • picks up small objects with index fingers and thumb
  • walks up stairs with help
  • walks smoothly, runs stifly
  • drinks unassisted
  • throws ball with whole arm
  • throws and catches without falling
  • jumps with both feet off the floor
  • turns books pages

21 Months

  • walks up and down stairs with help of railing or hand
  • jumps, runs, throws, climbs, kicks large ball and squats to play
  • fits puzzle together
  • responds rhythmically to music with the whole body

24 Months

  • walks watching feet runs rhythmically
  • can't stop and start smoothly
  • goes up and down stairs alone without altering feet
  • pushes bicycle
  • eats with a fork
  • moves smoothly from a walk to run

3 Years

  • walks up and down stairs without help; non alternating steps
  • walks without watching feet
  • marches to music
  • balances on one leg for short periods
  • rides tricycle
  • can spread substances with a knife - if allowed

4 Years

  • walks up and down stairs with alternating steps
  • jumps over objects
  • hops on one foot
  • can copy block letters

5 Years

  • has gross motor skills
  • plays complex games
  • cuts own meat with knife
  • draws well, colors in the lines, creates recognizable drawinds
  • prints simple words
  • dresses without assistance
  • has established hand preference

6 Years

  • gross motor skills improving; rides bicycle
  • throws a ball well